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EXPLAINED BY GAURAV GARG [ TOPPERG.COM ]

Complete Topics Explained according to latest CBSE syllabus guidelines.

ALL TOPICS

E COMMERCE , ONLINE SECURITY , FRAUDS , DIGITAL SIGNATURE , SSL , COMPUTER ETHICS , HACKING , MALWARE , PRIVACY , ANONIMITY , DATA PROTECTION , INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND ITS RIGHTS , WIPO , SOFTWARE LICENSES , FREE SOFTWARE , FOSSM , OPEN SOURCE , GNU , FREEDOM OF INFORMATION , RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT , DIGITAL DIVIDE , NETIQUETTE

E-Commerce

  • E-Commerce is the ability to do business online via the internet.
  • In e-commerce, the money transaction takes place over the network.
  • PRIVACY – Protection of data of the parties involved in trading through E-commerce.

Types of e-commerce platforms :

  1. Business-to-Business (B2B)
  2. Business-to-Consumer (B2C)
  3. Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)

Business-to-Business (B2B)

  • The conduct of trade between two or more businesses/companies.
  • Like Amazon partners with delivery companies like Blue Dart and Gati etc.
  • INDIAMART is an Online platform where businesses find each other.

Business-to-Consumer (B2C)

  • The sale of goods and/or services to the consumer through digital means.
  • After the placement of such orders, the company/agent receiving the order will then deliver the same to the consumer in a convenient time-span. EXAMPLE, Amazon, Flipkart, etc.

Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)

  • Consumer selling goods and/or services to other consumers through the digital medium. EXAMPLE, OLX, Quickr, etc.

Encryption and Decryption / CRYPTOGRAPHY

  • It is an essential part of any transaction that takes place over the Internet.
  • Customers will lose his / her faith in e-business if its security is compromised.
  • Encryption is a technology which keeps the messages secret from unauthorized access.

Digital signature

  • A digital signature is a mathematical technique used to validate the authenticity and integrity of a message, software or digital document.
  • It’s the digital equivalent of a handwritten signature or stamped seal, but it offers far more inherent security.
  • Digital signatures work through public key cryptography’s.
  • The individual who creates the digital signature uses a private key to encrypt signature-related data, while the only way to decrypt that data is with the signer’s public key.
  • If the recipient can’t open the document with the signer’s public key, that’s a sign there’s a problem with the document or the signature. This is how digital signatures are authenticated.
  • For example, suppose we take a plaintext message, “hello,” and encrypt it with a key*; let’s say the key is “2jd8932kd8.” Encrypted with this key, our simple “hello” now reads “X5xJCSycg14=”, which seems like random garbage data. However, by decrypting it with that same key, we get “hello” back.
  • Bob wants to send Alice an encrypted email. To do this, Bob takes Alice’s public key and encrypts his message to her. Then, when Alice receives the message, she takes the private key that is known only to her in order to decrypt the message from Bob.
     
    Although attackers might try to compromise the server and read the message, they will be unable to because they lack the private key to decrypt the message. Only Alice will be able to decrypt the message as she is the only one with the private key. And, when Alice wants to reply, she simply repeats the process, encrypting her message to Bob using Bob’s public key.

Secure Socket Layer [ SSL ]

  • SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer
  • technology for keeping an internet connection secure and safeguarding any sensitive data that is being sent between two systems,
  • preventing criminals from reading and modifying any information transferred, including potential personal details.
  • The two systems can be a server and a client (for example, a shopping website and browser) or server to server (for example, an application with personal identifiable information or with payroll information).
  • It does this by making sure that any data transferred between users and sites, or between two systems remain impossible to read.
  • It uses encryption algorithms to scramble data in transit, preventing hackers from reading it as it is sent over the connection.
  • This information could be anything sensitive or personal which can include credit card numbers and other financial information, names and addresses.
  • TLS (Transport Layer Security) is just an updated, more secure, version of SSL. We still refer to our security certificates as SSL
  • HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure) appears in the URL when a website is secured by an SSL certificate.
  • The details of the certificate, including the issuing authority and the corporate name of the website owner, can be viewed by clicking on the lock symbol on the browser bar.
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Computer ethics

  • Ethics is a set of moral principles that govern the behavior of an individual or group of people.
  • to the use of computers and the Internet. Examples include intellectual property rights, privacy policies, and online etiquette, or “netiquette”.
  • Computers make it easy to duplicate and redistribute digital content.
  • However, it is ethical to respect copyright guidelines.
  • When using software, it is important to understand and follow the license agreement, or SLA.
  • Using commercial software without paying for a license is considered piracy and is a violation of computer ethics. 
  • Hacking, or gaining unauthorized access to a computer system, is also an unethical way to use computers.
  • As technology advances, computers and the Internet have an increasing impact on society. Therefore, computer ethics must be part of the discussion whenever creating new technologies.
  • A modern example is how artificial intelligence affects existing jobs and human communication.
  • When computer ethics is part of the conversation, it helps ensure new technologies positively affect society.

ONLINE Privacy

•      Hacking – It is unlawful intrusion into a computer or network. A hacker can intrude through the security levels of a computer system or network and can acquire unauthorised access to other computers.

•      Malware – It means malicious software which is created to impair a computer system. Common malware are viruses, spyware, worms, trojan horses etc. A virus can delete files from a hard drive, while a spyware can collect data from a computer.

•      Data Protection – Also known as information privacy or data privacy, it is the process of safeguarding data which intends to influence a balance between individual privacy rights, while still authorizing data to be used for business purposes.

•      Anonymity – It is a way of keeping a user’s identity masked through various applications.

Intellectual Property Rights

  • Intellectual property rights are the legal rights that cover the privileges given to individuals who are the owners and inventors of a work, and have created something with their intellectual creativity.
  • Individuals related to areas such as literature, music, invention, etc., can be granted such rights, which can then be used in the business practices by them.
  • The creator/inventor gets exclusive rights against any misuse or use of work without his/her prior information.
  • However, the rights are granted for a limited period of time to maintain equilibrium.

The following list of activities which are covered by the intellectual property rights are laid down by the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) as following :

•      Industrial designs

•      Scientific discoveries

•      Protection against unfair competition

•      Literary, artistic, and scientific works

•      Inventions in all fields of human endeavor

•      Performances of performing artists, phonograms, and broadcasts

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•      Trademarks, service marks, commercial names, and designations

•      All other rights resulting from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary, or artistic fields

Software License

A software license agreement is a contract between the licensor or the author and the purchaser of a piece of software which establishes the purchaser’s rights. It defines how that software can be used and what happens in the event of breach.

Ø Proprietary software: Proprietary software (sometimes referred to as closed source software) is a software that legally remains the property of the organisation, group, or individual who created it. The organisation that owns the rights to the product usually does not release the source code, and may insist that only those who have purchased a special licence key can use it.

Ø Free software: Free software (also called freeware) is licensed at no cost, or for an optional fee. It is usually closed source.

Ø A program is free software when the user has

•      the freedom to run the program for any purpose

•      the freedom to access the source code and study how the program works

•      the freedom to adapt it to user’s needs

•      the freedom to redistribute copies

•      the freedom to improve the program and release the improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits

Ø Open source software : It is a free and an openly available to everyone. People who create open source products publish the code and allow others to use and modify it. Communities of programmers often work together to develop the software and to support users. Open source products are usually tested in public by online contributors.

The Free Open Source Software Movement (FOSSM) or Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS)

It is a social movement with the goal of obtaining and guaranteeing certain freedoms for software users, to use, study, modify and redistribute.

The Free Software movement and the open source movement are two separate movements. The term “open source” has different approach and philosophy. For the open source movement, the issue of whether software should be open source is a practical rather than an ethical question.

GNU General Public License, is intended to guarantee our freedom to share and change free software, and to make sure the software will remain free for all the users.

Right to Information Act, 2005 (RTI)

It is a revolutionary Act under which, a common man can demand any government agency to furnish information. The organisation is bound to provide the information, that too within 30 days, failing which the officer concerned is slapped with a monetary fine.

•      Everybody has a right to access official information. Non-disclosure of information should be the default.

•      An applicant does not need to give you a reason for wanting the information. On the contrary, the department must justify refusing them information.

•      All the requests have to be treated equally.

Digital Divide

The Digital Divide, or the Digital Split, is a social issue referring to the differing amount of information between those who have access to the Internet and those who do not have access. The term became popular among concerned parties, such as scholars, policy makers, and advocacy groups, in the late 1990s.

Broadly speaking, the difference is not necessarily determined by the access to the Internet, but by access to ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) and to media that the different segments of society can use. With regards to the Internet, the access is only one aspect, other factors such as the quality of connection and related services should be considered. Today, the most discussed issue is the availability of the access at an affordable cost and quality.

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The problem is often discussed in an international context, indicating certain countries are far more equipped than other developing countries to exploit the benefits from the rapidly expanding Internet. The digital divide is not indeed a clear single gap which divides a society into two groups. Researchers report that disadvantage can take such forms as lower-performance computers, lower-quality or high price connections (i.e. narrowband or dialup connection), difficulty of obtaining technical assistance, and lower access to subscription-based contents.

•      The idea that some information and communication technologies are vital to quality civic life is not new.

Some suggest that the internet and other ICTs are somehow transforming society, improving our mutual understanding, eliminating power differentials, realising a truly free and democratic world society, and other benefits.

Ø Why is there a gap?

•      Lack of infrastructure

•      Limited computer literacy rate

Ø Why should we bridge the gap?

•      For reducing economic inequalities

•      For social mobility

•      For health democracy

•      For overall economic growth.

Ø How can we bridge the gap?

•      Equipping advanced infr-structure in rural areas

•      Reducing cost of Internet

•      Arranging training centers for IT education

 “Netiquette” refers to Internet etiquette.

This simply means the use of good manners in online communication such as e-mail, forums, blogs, and social networking sites to name a few. It is important to use netiquette because online communication is non-verbal.

(i) Accuracy of information: Misleading others is obviously a major breach of online etiquette. This is true even if it’s unintentional. Check facts before providing information or giving advice. If you’re not an expert on a topic, maybe you shouldn’t be acting like you are.

(ii) Use internet resources ethically: Online study resources should be used to support learning, not replace it.

(iii) Promote healthy discussion: To get the most out of online forums, a useful netiquette guideline is to promote healthy discussion. You can help your online community by posing questions, sharing experiences, providing positive feedback, asking follow-up questions, and referring to information sources. Being a positive contributor is better than being a critic, troll or other negative force.

(iv) Ignore inflammatory comments by trolls: It’s generally best to ignore trolls. These are Internet users who try to bait other users into a reaction.

(v) Respect others as equals: Show a little respect and humility online.

(vi) Remember, your words are permanent: Be careful with what you post online. Once it’s out there, you may not be able to get it back.

(vii) Make your point in a nice way: Write in a way to get the kind of reaction you want. A little thoughtfulness, strategy and netiquette can go a long way in online discussions.

Plagiarism

It is the wrongful appropriation and stealing the publication of another author’s language, thoughts, ideas as one’s own original work.

Ø Types of plagiarism are:

(i) Collusion

(ii) Complete plagiarism

(iii) Partial plagiarism

(iv) Self-plagiarism

(v) Copying and Pasting

(vi) Word Switch

(vii) Concealing sources

(viii) Inadvertently

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